This report presents the findings of the labour market study in Bar Elias and the Bekaa, focusing on the labour activities, initiatives, and aspirations of current B&Z beneficiaries and Syrian refugee youth and women heads of household respondents that could potentially be engaged through future interventions. It also presents a general overview of the formal employment sectors that Syrians can engage in, by law, as well as principles and approaches that could be adopted for the informal economic activities that Syrian refugees engage in.
Livelihoods & Labour Rights
Over 250,000 migrant women are employed by private households in Lebanon to carry out household tasks such as cleaning, cooking, and caring for children and the elderly. A standard contract for Domestic Workers sets out the basic parameters for the employment relationship, which creates a legal link between the “the worker” and the “employer”. In Lebanon, the employer wields a great degree of power in determining the living and working conditions of a migrant domestic worker (MDW).
This report examines both the historical development and current situation of Syrians working in Lebanon through the analysis of policies established and implemented by the Lebanese government. While the report is not an assessment of these policies, it nevertheless reflects on its impact on Syrians’ working conditions and livelihoods. In this vein, this report notably focuses on emerging dynamics of increased informality, exploitation, and dependence.
This paper is inspired by examples of domestic workers organizing themselves in different parts of the world through social and solidarity economy enterprises and organizations which have become more evident since the advent of the ILO Domestic Workers Convention 2011, (No.189). It analyses current legislative and policy frameworks, institutional structures and membership-based initiatives that could allow and promote domestic workers’ social and solidarity economy enterprises and organizations in three countries in the Middle East; Jordan, Kuwait and Lebanon.
Using time-diary data from 25 countries, the authors demonstrate that there is a negative relationship between real GDP per capita and the female-male difference in total work time per day -- the sum of work for pay and work at home. In rich northern countries on four continents, including the United States, there is no difference -- men and women do the same amount of total work.
To help expand the focus of the social protection debate to include the informal sector, particularly women workers, the ILO global programme STEP, "Strategies and Tools against Social Exclusion and Poverty" and the global network called Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO) co-organized a workshop entitled “Social Protection for Women in the Informal Sector” in December 1999 in Geneva, Switzerland.
This paper aims to analyse the actual and potential impact of the global crisis on international migrant workers through a focus on four issue-areas.
قبل عام 2011، كانت عرسال كالمناطق الأخرى المهمشة لا تصلها التنمية ولا المشاريع الحكومية ولا الخدمات العامة و بالكاد يسمع عنها. فلا صحف تكتب عنها ولا قنوات تهتم بنقل أخبارها ومشاكلها، وفجأة أصبحت عرسال هي الخبر، احتلت العناوين الرئيسية في الصحف وبات اسمها يتردد يوميا في نشرات الأخبار و تصريحات السياسيين والحلقات الحوارية.
As eyes were peeled elsewhere in 2012, Lebanon was experiencing significant developments. The most notable of these moments within the Lebanese front were the demonstrations and push-backs by various labour movements against political and economic structures that have dominated the state for so long.